Bioelectricity is the process of producing electromagnetic energy by living organisms. The bioelectric activity which happens throughout the human body is very necessary to life. Living cells can produce electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields which enable the action of muscles and the transmission of information in the nerves. This is the concept of quick signaling in nerves. It produces physical processes in muscles or glands. There is some similarity among the muscles, nerves and glands of all organisms. The early development of fairly efficient electrochemical systems is the reason behind it. Scientists are concentrating on the muscles or nerves tissues like the brain, heart, eye, ear, stomach and certain glands, electric organs in some fish and potentials associated with damaged tissues. 

Electric movement in living tissue is a cellular concept which depends on the cell membrane. This membrane works as a capacitor wherein energy is stored as electrically charged ions on reverse sides of membranes. The stored energy is available for quick operation. It steadies the membrane system so that it is not activated by small disturbances. Cells capable of electric movement show a resting potential wherein their interiors are negative by about 0.1 volt or less compared with the outside of the cell. 

Bioelectric signals are triggered by electrically active tissues like the brain, heart or the muscles. These active tissues can cause some concentration differences in the extra-cellular fluid which includes sodium, potassium and chloride ions. This is why one can measure signals like ECG or EEG from outside the body on the surface of the skin, with the help of electrodes. An interface between the extra cellular fluid and the metal of the wire is constructed by the electrode. The electrode is a sensor which consists of a metal and often a salt-bridge. Here, the local differences of the concentration of charged ions are converted into an electrical signal. The bioelectric signal which is measured from the skin’s surface is within the approximate range of 0-2000 ┬ÁV (2 mV).

More electrical phenomena exist inside our body or on the electrode. Two of them are the DC (Direct Current) offset of the electrode and the 50 or 60 Hz (Hertz) mains interference or main potential. Furthermore, any measurement will display the noise which is produced by the body, the electrode impedance or the amplifier itself. Measuring potential differences between two points on the body can provide very important information regarding the electrical activity happens inside our body. All these noise and signals are dealt by the measurement configuration in such a way that the bioelectrical signals which are measured on the skin's surface are reflected in the output signal positively and cleanly.


  1. Hi Prasun Barua
    Thanks for sharing this wonderful post. It is not known to many that living organisms do produce energy to meet the energy needs of body. IT will be quite helpful for the knowledge of all. Such posts do play a big role on raising awareness on scientific and biological knowledge.


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