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How do solar cells work?

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Solar cell is an electrical device which converts the light energy directly into electricity utilizing photovoltaic effect. It is also defined as the form of photoelectric cell having electrical characteristics like current, voltage and resistance.
There are at least two semiconductor layers in solar cells. One layer contains a positive charge and the other layer contains a negative charge. A typical silicon solar cell consists of a thin wafer having phosphorus doped (N-type) ultra thin silicon layer on the top of boron-doped (P-type) thicker silicon layer. When these two materials are connected with each other, a junction is formed which is called P-N junction. As a result, an electrical field is created near the top surface of the cell. When these two layers are connected to an external load, the electrons flow through the circuit generates electricity.

Sunlight consists of small particles of solar energy called photons. When sunlight strikes on the surface of solar cell, ma…

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